Arrow 1 tests:
Test 1 (August 9th, 1990): Designed to test the control system the sensing devices that are being carried by the missile and guide it to its target during the launch. The test came to a halt seconds after take off and the missile was intentionally destroyed by an order from the ground due to fear it might ward off and hit a settlement. Cause of malfunction: the ground tracking radars were not successful at tracking the missiles’ flight.
Test 2 (March 25th, 1991): Designed to test the missile's system during launch. The test was conducted on a ship at sea. Malfunction in the missile resulted in the abortion of the experiment.
Test 3 (October 31st, 1991): Designed to test the Arrow’s interception ability. The missile was launched from a ship at sea as well, however, the same causes for the previous tests’ abortion reappeared, resulting in the abortion of this test as well.
Test 4 (September 23rd, 1992): Designed to test the missile’s system during launch. The systems operated as plan and the Arrow reached it’s designated point in the sky. The missile was destroyed, as planned, 45 seconds later. This successful experiment ended the system’s preliminary testing phase.
Test 5 (February 28th, 1993): Designed to test the missile’s interception abilities. The Arrow managed to pass by very closely to the target missile. For the first time, the Arrow’s ability to intercept Surface-to-Surface missiles was proven.
Test 6 (July 14th, 1993): Designed to test the missile’s interception abilities. The Arrow managed to pass by very closely to the target missile.
Test 7 (October 14th, 1993): Designed for system examination. The Arrow managed to pass by very closely to the target missile.
Test 8 (March 1st, 1994): The missile was not launched due to ground computer failure.
Test 9 (June 12, 1994): The missile was launched against a target missile and successfully intercepted it.
Arrow 2 tests:
Test 1 (July 30th, 1995): Designed to test the steering, control and cruising systems of the Arrow. The test was conducted without a target missile.
Test 2 (February 20th, 1996): Another successful experiment. This time a target missile had not been launched as well.
Test 3 (August 20th, 1996): Successful interception. The Arrow successfully destroyed the target missile.
Test 4 (March 11th, 1997): Another successful interception. The Arrow destroyed the target missile this time as well.
Test 5 (August 20th, 1997): The missile was destroyed by ground orders due to malfunction in the missile’s steering system.
Test 6 (September 14th, 1998): The missile was launched towards a virtual target created by a simulator. The test was successful.
Test 7 (November 1st, 1999): Full systems test. The missile was launched towards a virtual Scud target and successfully managed to hit and destroy it.
Test 8 (September 14th, 2000): The Arrow was launched towards the target missile “Black Sparrow” launched from an F-15 fighter jet simulating a Scud. The Arrow hit and destroyed the target.
Test 9 (August 28th, 2001): Full systems test wherein the Arrow was launched towards a “Black Sparrow” target missile, simulating a ballistic missile flight. The interception was conducted at a range larger than 100 kilometers at higher altitudes than before. The Arrow hit its target and destroyed it.
Test 10 (January 5th, 2003): Full systems test that did not include interception. Four missiles were launched towards four simulation targets in order to examine the interceptor’s performance on special flight conditions and the system’s ability at a sequence of launches.
Test 11 (December 16th, 2003): An test that examined the improved systems added as a result of a contract with the US, enabling the Arrow to intercept at a high ceiling.
Over the following years more tests are expected aimed to examine the missile’s efficiency and to test for possible malfunctions.
In the year 1987, in light of the Arab countries arming themselves with long ranged Surface-to-Surface missiles, the ministry of defense decided to join USA in developing and demonstrating Anti Surface-to-Surface abilities at medium range as defined by the SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Program, also known as “Star Wars”.
At the end of 1988 an agreement was signed to assemble a prototype for an Anti Surface-to-Surface missile, the Arrow. On August 9th, 1990, the first launch was established and ever since further launches aimed to test the missile’s systems were prepared.
The missile’s development underwent in two stages. In the first stage a missile designated “Arrow 1” was built for purpose of technological demonstrations. In the second stage the operational missile, the “Arrow 2” was built.
Intercepting a missile in the air is problematic: short flight time (three to nine minutes), high speed (six to eight mach) and a low radar signature make it difficult to hit a missile. The Arrow was designed to provide response to the threat in the form of deploying a shell pf aerial defense.
Every Arrow battery is supposed to provide a formidable multiple-sector defense radius. The batteries are deployed in such a matter so that they would back each other up in order to provide in the optimal way of defending substantial areas of the country.
The missile and its fire-control system, including the homing and seeking radar, are the two most entangled components in the system. In order to insure the destruction of the hostile target, the intercepting Arrow must reach in an extremely short time period to the rendezvous point. The Arrow’s fire control system has only few dozen seconds – the time period required for missiles to penetrate the atmosphere and reach the earth – to locate them beforehand, to calculate a rendezvous point at any given second and launch the intercepting missiles.
The developers’ intention was to perform the destruction sequence away from populated locations, and so the Surface-to-Surface missile has to be captured during a very short period. For that a large amount processing power is required, a radar system with a fast long ranged aerial scan and powerful missile engines to develop the interceptor’s needed speed.
The missile is comprised of two stages: the booster and the interceptor. The booster, designed by the Israeli Military Industries, is the part to develop the missiles enormous velocity. The fuel’s burn lasts not longer then few seconds, and when finished the boosters’ chemical energy turns to pure kinetic energy, conveying the power for the second part, the interceptor, developed by the Israeli Aerial Industries. The energy allows the interceptor to reach a high velocity, after which it does not require more propulsion.
The battle management center
The Arrow system’s battle manag, manufactured by “Tadiran” is designated “Citron Tree”. It is the command and control center of the system, where the controllers reside.
The Arrow system’s radar, designated “Green Pine” was developed by “Elta”. The radar is of the most sophisticated type ever built in the country, and one of the most advanced in the world. It is based on the Phased Array Technology, enabling it to promptly locate targets at long ranges with great precision. Green Pine is capable of tracking targets at ranges of hundreds of kilometers and guiding the Arrow missiles to them.
The Green Pine’s scanning principal is based on creating energetic beams to flash the aerial space swiftly and simultaneously. The radar array is comprised of thousand of small projectors, capable of presenting an aerial picture and operating many targets simultaneously. Even if many Surface-to-Surface missiles were to be launched, the Arrow system would still handle each missile separately.
In order to test the radar’s functionality, “Elta” built a special radar shooting range. The sophisticated radar shooting range is the size of a large hall and spares the need for field experiments or building a hall several kilometers wide. Special spongy triangles scattered on the walls of the hell reflect the radar’s radiation and successfully simulate the radar’s operation in an open field.